Sun Spots - Lentigo
Skin spots which are usually seen as brownish spots on skin are generally seen amongst white people. Sunlight exposure is the biggest known cause. It is more commonly seen on face and hands which are exposed to the sun the most. Some Lentigos pass from ancestors genetically and sometimes radiation therapies cause lentigo. In order to prevent Lentigos from developing it is required to stay away from the sun and use sun protection creams if it is necessary to go out to sunlight. Lentigo may be removed by Laser, cryotherapy and some creams.
Hyperpigmentation (Dark colored spots) and Hypopigmentation ( Light colored spots)
Pigmentation is the color of the skin. If the person is healthy his/her skin color will seem healthy. A change might occur in person's skin color after a disease and this occurs as darkening or in contrast, lightening of skin color.
Melanin is the substance which gives the skin its color and hyperpigmentation occurs in case of its increase. In situations like pregnancy or Addison's disease melanin increase may happen. Sunlight exposure is one of the main reasons of hyperpigmentation and it may darken hyperpigmentated regions even more. Other reasons of darkening of skin color may be antibiotics, antiaritmics, antimalarian drugs.
Another hyperpigmentation example is melasma. They are brownish regional darkening of skin color more commonly on face. Although it is usually seen amongst women, it may be seen amongst men too. Melasma usually disappears after pregnancy but sometimes prescribed creams may be used. If you have melasma stay away from sunlight and use SPF 15 sun protection cream. Sun protections which involve zinc oxide and titanium dioxide in it are more proper and also the ones which involve parsol 1789 (avobenzone) provide good protection. Consult to your doctor before you treat melasma on your own.Hypopigmentation In contrast to hyperpigmentation it is a light skin discoloration or loss of color which occurs after melanin decrease in body.
Examples of Hypopigmentation;
You may find additional information in its own page.
Albinismis a hereditary disease and it results from absence of enzymes which form melanin. As a result, it is a total problem of pigmentation and it may be seen in hair, eyes and skin. Because of an abnormal gene in genetic structure body cannot produce melanin and Albinism is not curable. Albinism patients have to use sun protection all the time because they have higher rates of exposing to sun damage and having skin cancer
Loss of color due to skin wounds: If a skin infection, wounds or burns occur it may cause hypopigmentation on that region. This situation does not cause permanent loss of color but it may take long for the skin to get colored again.
Are regional discoloration on skin which are present at birth or which show up within a few weeks after delivery. It is important to remind that many birthmarks are not cancerous but if your baby is born with a birthmark or if it shows up within a few weeks after delivery it is worthwhile to let your doctor see it..Pigmented birthmarks: Discolored region is smooth and flat. Some of these are:
Macular Spots are the most common vascular spots. These spots which can show up in two types; Spots which show up on forehead or eyelids usually do not get any worse and disappear in early childhood period. The type of spots which are seen on the back of the neck may stay permanent until adulthood. These spots are usually minor and they do not require treatment.Hemangioma results from gathering of too many little veins together. Some of these stay the same as a birthmark while others may grow in time. They are reported to grow rapidly in the first age of the baby in some cases.
Strawberry hemangioma (Superficial hemangioma): It is slightly elevated and reddish. It may show up anywhere on body.
Cavernous hemangioma: This bluish spot goes deeper under the skin. Most of these hemangiomas disappear spontaneously. Roughly 50 percent of them disappear at the age of 5, 70 percent at the age of 7 and 90 percent of them usually disappears at the age of 9. This type of spots which damage functions like seeing, feeling, eating and cause ulcer will be treated. Hemangiomas may be treated with different methods and every method has a risk of its own. Corticosteroids are administrated with injection or taken orally. Side effects of this drug are high blood pressure, high blood sugar, lack of growth and cataract. Some specific hemangiomas may be prevented from growing by a laser therapy. In this treatment method it is necessary to know some risks such as ulcer or wound scar. While surgery is an alternative treatment method for this disease, it is possible to combine these methods and apply.